In addition to its work with the WTO, the United States has concluded trade agreements with 20 countries that cover a number of issues, ranging from tariffs on goods and access to the agricultural market to intellectual property and the environment. For the FDA, the specific themes are chapters of agreements on regulatory issues such as SPS measures, OBTs and good regulatory practices – as well as sector chapters on cosmetics, medical devices and drugs, if any. The FDA helps develop negotiation proposals in the United States and the FDA is actively involved in trade negotiations with U.S. trading partners. The USMCA establishes the highest level of a U.S. trade agreement for strong and effective protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights. This is a significant enhancement of NAFTA. Nevertheless, in December 2019, following negotiations on the revision of the USMCA text signed in November 2018, substantial changes were made to Chapter 20 of intellectual property. An April 2019 Analysis by the International Trade Commission on the likely effects of the USMCA estimated that the agreement would increase U.S. real GDP by 0.35 percent if the agreement were fully implemented (six years after ratification) and would increase total U.S. employment by 0.12% (176,000 jobs).   The analysis cited by another Congressional Research Service study showed that the agreement would not have a measurable effect on employment, wages or overall economic growth.  In the summer of 2019, Larry Kudlow, Trump`s chief economic adviser (the director of the National Economic Council at Trump White House), made unfounded statements about the likely economic impact of the agreement and overstated forecasts related to jobs and GDP growth.
 The USMCA is expected to have very little impact on the economy.  An International Monetary Fund (IMF) discussion paper published at the end of March 2019 stated that the agreement would have a “negligible” impact on the general economy.   The IMF study predicted that the USMCA “would have a negative impact on trade in the automotive, textile and clothing sectors, while achieving modest welfare gains, mainly due to improved access to the goods market, with a negligible impact on real GDP.”  The IMF study found that the economic benefits of the USMCA would be greatly enhanced if Trump`s trade war ended (i.e., when the United States lowered tariffs on steel and aluminum imports from Canada and Mexico and canada and Mexico will lower retaliatory duties on imports from the United States)  To facilitate greater cross-border trade , the United States has reached an agreement with Mexico and Canada to increase the de minimis value.