FP7 IRMOS also looked at aspects of translating application-level SLAs into resource-based attributes to bridge the gap between customer expectations and cloud provider resource management mechanisms.   The European Commission presented a summary of the results of different research projects in the field of ASAs (from specifications to control, management and implementation).  Since the late 1980s, SLAs have been used by fixed operators of telecommunications companies. Today, SLAs are so prevalent that large organizations have many different SLAs in the company itself. Two different units in an organization write an SLA, one being the customer and the other the service provider. This approach helps maintain the same quality of service across different units of the organization and across multiple locations in the organization. This internal SLA scripting also makes it possible to compare the quality of service between an internal department and an external service provider.  A service level agreement (SLA) is an obligation between a service provider and a customer. Particular aspects of the service – quality, availability, responsibilities – are agreed between the service provider and the service user.  The most common component of an SLA is that services must be provided to the customer as contractually agreed. For example, Internet service providers and telecommunications companies will typically include service level agreements in the terms of their contracts with customers to define the service level(s) sold in plain language. In this case, the SLA usually deconstructs a technical definition in the intermediate period between failures (MTBF), average repair time or mean recovery time (MTTR); identification of the party responsible for reporting errors or paying fees; responsibility for different data rates; throughput; Jitter; or similar measurable details.
It is not uncommon for an Internet backbone service provider (or network service provider) to explicitly display its own SLA on its website.    The U.S. Telecommunications Act of 1996 does not expressly require companies to have SAs, but it does provide a framework for Section 251 and Section 252 carriers.  For example, Section 252(c)(1) (“Obligation to Trade”) requires established local stock exchange operators (ILECs) to negotiate in good faith issues such as resale and access to rights of way. Typically, ESAs include many elements, from the definition of services to the termination of the contract.  In order to ensure strict compliance with the AGREEMENTS, these agreements are often designed with specific dividing lines and the parties concerned must meet regularly to create an open forum for communication. The rewards and penalties applicable to the supplier are often indicated. Most LTC also leave room for periodic (annual) audits to make changes.  Service level agreements are also defined at different levels: the underlying advantage of cloud computing is the shared resources that are supported by the underlying nature of a common infrastructure environment. Therefore, SLAs span the entire cloud and are offered by service providers as a service-based agreement and not as a customer-based agreement.
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